Math Curriculum Guide
Guide to Fifth Grade Math
One of my main goals as a teacher is to inspire all students to like (or even love!) math. At Pine Hill, we use the Everyday Math Curriculum, and this year the publishers have come out with a new edition more aligned to our standards. In math class, I also try to mix in unique handson activities, engaging challenges, and elevating math discussions. I aim to use a workshop model for math instruction, where students get to meet and work in small groups for most lessons and learn at a pace that is comfortable for them.
Here is an overview of some essential skills fifth grade students will target this year:
*For skills marked with an asterisk, students must be able to estimate so they can demonstrate that their answer makes sense. Students must also be able to model the problem using a drawing, diagram, or other illustration.
More specific details on all of the 5th grade math skills are in the Frameworks below.
Here is an overview of some essential skills fifth grade students will target this year:
 Multiply whole numbers using the standard US algorithm.
 Divide whole numbers up to 2 digits.
 Evaluate expressions with parenthesis, brackets, etc.
 Use powers of 10 and explain how they relate to place value and decimals.
 Round and compare decimals.
 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals.*
 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators.*
 Multiply fractions, whole numbers, and mixed numbers together.*
 Solve realworld problems with multiplication of fractions such as resizing and finding area.
 Solve very basic fraction division problems using models.
 Find the volume of a rectangular prism using unit cubes as well as the volume formula.
 Graph points on a coordinate grid.
 And then there is a medley of other (somewhat random) skills that we will cover.
*For skills marked with an asterisk, students must be able to estimate so they can demonstrate that their answer makes sense. Students must also be able to model the problem using a drawing, diagram, or other illustration.
More specific details on all of the 5th grade math skills are in the Frameworks below.
Extra Math Help
Fifth grade math can be tricky for both students and parents. To help, I've created a page of resources and links that explain many of the concepts we cover in class.
Click here to visit the Math Help Page.
Click here to visit the Math Help Page.
5th Grade Mathematics Frameworks
Below are the Massachusetts Mathematics Frameworks for fifth grade. You can download the full Mathematics Frameworks for all grades here.
Overview of FrameworksOperations and Algebraic Thinking
Number and Operations—Fractions

Standards for Mathematical Practice

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (5.OA)
Write and interpret numerical expressions.
1. Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.
2. Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “Add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.
Analyze patterns and relationships.
3. Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.
1. Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.
2. Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “Add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.
Analyze patterns and relationships.
3. Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.
Number and Operations in Base Ten (5.NBT)
Understand the place value system.
1. Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
2. Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10.
3. Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
Perform operations with multidigit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.
5. Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
6. Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
7. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.
1. Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
2. Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10.
3. Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
 Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000).
 Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
Perform operations with multidigit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.
5. Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
6. Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
7. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.
Number and Operations—Fractions (5.NF)
Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
1. Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12 . (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)
2. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2 .
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.
3. Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3⁄4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3⁄4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3⁄4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
4. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.
7. Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.*
1. Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12 . (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)
2. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2 .
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.
3. Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3⁄4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3⁄4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3⁄4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
4. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.
 Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15 . (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd .)
 Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.
 Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.
 Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n × a)/(n × b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.
7. Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.*
 Interpret division of a unit fraction by a nonzero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3 .
 Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4.
 Solve realworld problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1⁄2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?
The Number System (5.NS)
Gain familiarity with concepts of positive and negative integers.
1. Use positive and negative integers to describe quantities such as temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, or credit/debit.
1. Use positive and negative integers to describe quantities such as temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, or credit/debit.
Measurement and Data (5.MD)
Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.
1. Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, realworld problems.
Represent and interpret data.
2. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.
Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.
3. Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.
5. Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve realworld and mathematical problems involving volume.
1. Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, realworld problems.
Represent and interpret data.
2. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.
Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.
3. Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.
 A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.
 A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.
5. Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve realworld and mathematical problems involving volume.
 Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold wholenumber products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.
 Apply the formulas V=l×w×h and V=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with wholenumber edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems.
 Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve realworld problems.
Geometry (5.G)
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve realworld and mathematical problems.
1. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, y axis and ycoordinate).
2. Represent realworld and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.
Classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties.
3. Understand that attributes belonging to a category of twodimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.
4. Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.
1. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, y axis and ycoordinate).
2. Represent realworld and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.
Classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties.
3. Understand that attributes belonging to a category of twodimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.
4. Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.